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Closer view of the brain

first_img <a href=”” rel=”nofollow” target=”_blank”> <img src=”” alt=”0″ title=”How To Choose The Correct Channel Type For Your Video Content ” /> </a> Harvard University’s Jeff Lichtman and colleagues use automated EM technologies to probe the structures of neural tissue at nanometer resolution. Courtesy of Cell“One thing that surprised us was … that axons often made two, three, or even more synapses on the same dendrite,” Lichtman said. “The understanding had been that dendritic spines are there to collect information from as many different axons as possible, yet we found many cases where the same axon found different spines on the same dendrite.“That was interesting because it suggests those multiple-contact axons are communicating more powerfully with the dendrite because they have more connections with it,” he continued. “When we looked closely, we found that it’s not possible for this result to happen by chance — some axons preferred to form synapses on some nearby dendrites more than they did with other equally nearby dendrites. That says that even in this trivially small volume, we are already beginning to see that the brain’s wiring diagram is organized in some interesting ways. It is not simply that nerve cells establish random contacts with nearby neurons, as was expected. There’s something purposeful going on here.”The study also suggested that dendritic spines are not shaped by axons’ electrical activity, contrary to wide belief.“The shape of spines goes from long and skinny to very short and stubby,” Lichtman said. “It’s thought that electrical activity, based on the axon, should generate that shape, but because we had multiple spines with different shapes enervated by the same axon, we know they have the same electrical activity.”For Lichtman and his colleagues, the study is the culmination of years of effort, not only to understand the brain, but also to develop systems for collecting precise images of how the brain is wired.“It’s a very, very tall staircase that we are trying to climb, but at least we’re on the staircase,” Lichtman said.Getting to step one was a yearlong process.“This paper took somewhere between five and six years to complete,” Lichtman said. “Much of that time was devoted to inventing the pipeline we use to capture these images. That required developing a means of cutting brain very thin, collecting the brain sections, and using this tape-based method that had not been used previously.”With the system in place, Lichtman and colleagues set about using electron microscopes to capture images of tissue and shaping a method to trace cells through the various layers, allowing researchers to reconstruct axons, dendrites, and synapses into 3-D images. The images were also used to build a database that was mined for insights into neuron connectivity.“What this paper describes is the pipeline where we start with a physical piece of brain and end up at the other end with a digital brain,” Lichtman said. “It’s been digitized and is minable, so you can look at this digital brain sample over and over again without having to dissect a real brain for each new question.”The important insights in the study required a surprisingly small amount of brain.“We imaged a section of brain that was 40-by-40-by-40 microns, and in that volume we completely saturated and reconstructed an area that was only 1,500 cubic microns,” Lichtman said. “It’s about three-billionths the size of a mouse brain, so it’s very small, but you have to start somewhere.”The selected region centers on a few dendritic processes of two large brain cells, allowing researchers to get a sense of just how many other nerve cells are located in the immediate vicinity of one small segment of a few neurons.What they discovered came as a surprise even to Lichtman.“We found 1,500 nerve cells provide nerve cell axons and dendrites in this little volume, which is a shockingly large number,” he said. “Those nerve cells contribute to a lot of other areas as well, but that gives you some sense of the extraordinary networking in the brains of mammals.”In fact, connections in the brain are so densely packed, state-of-the-art imaging can only begin to scratch the surface.“We found a synapse approximately every cubic micron,” Lichtman said. “That means if you look at images of the brain captured using high-resolution techniques like functional magnetic resonance imaging, where the pixel size represents one cubic millimeter, then there are one billion synapses within every pixel.”It may be there, in that staggering density, he said, that the study’s final message lies.“It’s very hard to get a complete feeling for this,” Lichtman said. “There is this naïve view that if you just know a little bit more, then understanding it will be easier, but in this case, knowing a little more has shown us how much further we have to go before we’ll understand brains.”The study was described in a July 30 paper in the journal Cell. For Harvard neurobiologist Jeff Lichtman, the question hasn’t been whether scientists will ever understand the brain, but how closely they’ll have to look before they do.The answer, it turns out, is very, very close.Led by Lichtman, the Jeremy R. Knowles Professor of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Santiago Ramón y Cajal Professor of Arts and Sciences, a team of researchers has succeeded in comprehensively imaging — at the nano scale — a small portion of mouse brain. What they found, Lichtman said, could open the door to understanding how learning alters the brain.A team of scientists from universities including Harvard, Johns Hopkins, and MIT contributed to the research by helping build the imaging acquisition and analysis pipeline required to study the brain in such detail. The co-authors are Narayanan Kasthuri, Kenneth Hayworth, Daniel Berger, Richard Schalek, José Angel Conchello, Seymour Knowles-Barley, Dongil Lee, Amelio Vázquez-Reina, Verena Kaynig, Thouis Jones, Mike Roberts, Josh Morgan, Juan Carlos Tapia, H. Sebastian Seung, William Gray Roncal, Joshua Vogelstein, Randal Burns, Daniel Sussman, Carey Priebe, and Hanspeter Pfister.Connections in a cubelast_img read more

Flash forward your storage. Cut TCO.

first_img* Competitive pricing is based on a variety of sources including analyst data, price sheets when available, and public information in October 2015. Individual customer price may vary based on a variety of circumstances and data should be used for comparison purposes. The days of paying a premium for flash storage compared to disk are over. Now enterprises of all kinds are taking advantage of Dell Storage SC Series flash solutions powered by Intel®, so they can:Boost data throughputsImprove application performanceReduce storage footprintsConsume less energyLower TCOInnovateYou can read below about all kinds of Dell customers that are realizing big benefits like these. Like the hospital that has boosted its EHR system performance by 40 percent and cut backup times by 50 percent. Or the car repair chain that accelerated performance of its core application by 300 percent!How do the Dell Storage SC Series of all-flash and hybrid storage arrays do it? They feature a unique, automated tiering architecture. It can provide the right mix of flash performance and price to meet an organization’s needs for the lowest dollar/GB cost in the market.* Flash tiering can dramatically accelerate active workloads, so applications run faster and access data much quicker. Advanced technologies in compression, deduplication, automated tiering and thin provisioning also help ensure data throughputs are always optimized.The following six companies implemented Dell all-flash or hybrid storage solutions to gain better overall data and application performance, while lowering their TCO.Wheeling HospitalDue to slow data transfer speeds, overnight data backups were colliding with the morning rush of *** prescriptions at Wheeling Hospital. Dell Storage SC Series flash-optimized hybrid arrays with Intel Xeon® processors helped increase EHR system performance by 40 percent and cut backup times by 50 percent, solving the problem.P&V GroupAs a leading insurer, the P&V Group needed faster reporting to comply with new EU regulations. Using Dell Storage SC Series flash-optimized storage arrays with Intel Xeon processors, it achieved 70 percent faster reporting, while lowering storage costs by 80 percent.Service KingExcessive customer wait times due to frequent time-outs of its core application threatened the growth of Service King, a big car repair chain. Powered by Intel, Dell Storage SC Series flash arrays boosted the application’s performance by 300 percent, saving 20 minutes per customer each day.Daqo GroupTo lower the TCO for its enterprise application suite, the Daqo Group, a diversified manufacturer, deployed all-flash Dell Storage SC Series arrays with Intel Xeon processors. Automated tiering capabilities helped boost data speeds up to 200 percent.Samitivej HospitalIn upgrading its patient information system, Samitivej Hospital sought more data throughput with a lower TCO. It got both with Dell Storage SC Series flash arrays powered by Intel. Data speeds are now up to 100,000 IOPS with less costs for power and cooling.The Watershed Addiction Treatment ProgramsThe Watershed Addiction Treatment Programs wanted a virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) to keep pace with fast growth. Using Dell Storage SC Series hybrid arrays with both flash and spinning disks, and powered by Intel, it gained 50 percent faster data performance and near-zero latency for optimal user experiences.*          *          *Find out more about how Dell Storage SC Series flash-optimized arrays powered by Intel can deliver new levels of performance and lower your TCO. Learn more about what you can achieve with future-ready, cost-competitive, flash storage solutions here:Read the Dell Flash Storage eBookView the Dell Flash Storage VideoVisit the Dell Flash Storage Websitelast_img read more

Cher Taps Rick Elice to Pen Book for Her Bio-Musical

first_img View Comments Oscar winner, music icon and poet laureate of Twitter Cher is still at work on a bio-musical, and she knows just the man to write the script. The pop legend revealed on Twitter that Jersey Boys scribe Rick Elice has been tapped to pen the book. According to Cher, the two spent three days together and had “so much fun [stars emoji, heart emoji, stars emoi].”Cher first announced plans for a musical about her life in June 2012. At that time, she revealed that the show would follow the original concept for Evita, with three actresses playing the starring role at different milestones. Cher herself expressed interest in playing a fourth iteration of herself: a wise figure communicating with the younger versions as she turns back time, so to speak. Think Fun Home, but with Alison playing every character in West Side Story.This wouldn’t be the only pop diva Elice has been recently tasked with bringing to the stage; earlier this year, Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt Emmy nominee Tituss Burgess told that he is at work with Elice on a musical adaptation of a Whitney Houston-led film. The writer also penned The British Invasion Musical, which held a workshop starring Christian Borle this summer.Elice received a Tony nod for writing the book to Jersey Boys alongside Marshall Brickman. He also earned nominations for Best Play and Best Score for Peter and the Starcatcher, co-directed by his late husband, Roger Rees.last_img read more

Government decides to act promptly to resolve situation of Africans held in police cells.

first_img Share In photo: court gavel. Photo credit: lazytechguys.comAt a hearing at the High Court yesterday, Government gave a solemn undertaking to act quickly to resolve the situation of an African held in the police cell in Roseau. Tommy Ogunleye of Lagos, Nigeria has been in the cell awaiting deportation since April 8th of this year. Mr. Ogunleye entered the country as a prohibited immigrant some time in 2009 and was arrested in January 2011 for entering the country on a false Botswana Passport.He was charged and sent to Stock Farm Prison.  But on 8th April he pleaded guilty and was transferred to the police cell awaiting deportation where he remains to this day.The public will recall how the plight of this man and two other Africans was discovered at the beginning of June when Mr. Bernard Wiltshire, former Attorney General of Dominica was himself thrown in the same cell on what many people regard an abuse of police power.  But it was that fortuitous and unfortunate event that led to the public discovery of the situation of the Africans.Following this discovery an application for a Writ of  Habeas Corpus, whereby a person wrongly imprisoned can be released, was made on behalf of Mr. Ogunleye by these Chambers and heard by the High Court on 18th July 2011. The judge declined to release Mr. Ogunleye, in light of an undertaking by the government given to the Court that the government would make a travel ticket immediately available and had already applied to the governments of Trinidad, Curacoa and Holland for transit visas to facilitate his passage to Nigeria for which the Nigerian High Commission in Trinidad would provide the necessary travel documents.One of the Africans had already left through the intervention of the French authorities and the other would already have left, but for the same visa problems with visas.None of this would have happened so soon, but for the intervention of the public and these Chambers, and I would like to congratulate the Dominican public who have shown in the last few weeks a commendable quality to see that our country adheres to proper standards of human rights. I must also say that in the course of my preparations for the case, I obtained evidence of the most outstanding instance of humanity by a Dominican to a stranger in need who lent a helping hand, not knowing of course the circumstances which led that unfortunate man to our shores.Having said all this, there remains yet one unacceptable scandal of the squalor and horror of our detention cells, not only in the police station, but in the Magistrates court also which are reminiscent of the days when the Baracoon building was used as a holding area for African slaves wrenched from their African motherland by exceptionally evil human beings of a completely different race.Bernard WiltshireBala-Congoree Chambers Tweet LocalNews Government decides to act promptly to resolve situation of Africans held in police cells. by: – July 20, 2011 Sharecenter_img 20 Views   no discussions Share Sharing is caring!last_img read more

Kobe Bryant: Three of the nine victims’ bodies recovered from crash site

first_img Loading… Read Also: Kobe Bryant: Feds probe helicopter crash that killed NBA legend Audio of the pilot’s interactions with air traffic controllers show he intended on following the 101 highway towards Thousand Oaks – where the basketball academy was – when he veered off path and ended up crashing into the hill. It is possible he had become disoriented because of the poor visibility and thick fog and clouds. The pilot had been qualified to fly in foggy conditions and he was even given special clearance to fly on Sunday. The recovery effort is ongoing. FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail分享 Three bodies have been recovered from the wreckage of Kobe Bryant’s helicopter, but police will not say who they belong to. Bryant, 41, and his daughter Gianna, 13, died when their helicopter crashed into the side of a hill in Calabasasa, California, on Sunday morning. Emergency teams at the debris-strewn crash site on Monday. Three bodies have been recovered but another six have not There were another seven people on board who also died; two of Gianna’s basketball teammates, their parents, a coach and the pilot. Where the helicopter crashed is on a patch of ‘rough’ terrain which emergency teams had trouble accessing throughout the afternoon on Sunday. They had to suspend their efforts on Sunday night and started again on Monday morning once it was light. It is unclear what kind of condition the bodies are in. Investigators continue to work at the scene of the crash on Monday. They are having trouble reaching the victims’ bodies Upon impact, the helicopter caught fire. Sheriff Alex Villlanueva said on Sunday: ‘It’s a logistical nightmare in a sense, because the crash site itself is not easily accessible. ‘They cannot access the crash site, it is a very rough terrain, dangerous even in daylight. We just want people to stay away.’ He said the terrain was ‘rough’ and that there was debris for 100 yards in every direction of the crash. What caused it remains unconfirmed. The NTSB will continue its investigation into the crash. Promoted ContentWhy Go Veg? 7 Reasons To Do This7 Reasons You Have Trouble Getting Things DoneTop 10 Most Romantic Nations In The World7 Reasons It’s Better To Be A VeganThe Models Of Paintings Whom The Artists Were Madly In Love WithThe Very Last Bitcoin Will Be Mined Around 2140. Read More7 Universities In The World With The Highest Market ValueCristiano Ronaldo Turns His Hotels Into Coronavirus Hospitals?9 Iconic Roles That Could Have Been Played By Different ActorsBirds Enjoy Living In A Gallery Space Created For ThemWhat Happens When You Eat Eggs Every Single Day?Couples Who Celebrated Their Union In A Unique, Unforgettable Waylast_img read more

Donnelly addresses Decatur County Democrats

first_imgCo-Democrats of the Year Kenny Owens and Greg AllenGreensburg, In. — Decatur County Democrats gathered for their “Kickin’ Blue Dinner”, formerly known as the Jefferson-Jackson Day Dinner, over the weekend and welcomed incumbent U.S. Senator Joe Donnelly. Donnelly told the crowd, We have to stand up for America this November, stand for what’s right.”Four-term Decatur County councilman, Kenny Owens, and outgoing sheriff, Greg Allen, were named Co-Democrat of the Year.In addition to Donnelly, guests heard speeches from congressional candidate Jeannine Lee Lake, state representative candidates Corrine Westerfeld and Del Feuston, candidate for sheriff, David Durant, county clerk candidate, Karen Higginbotham, Marion Township trustee candidate, Ben Tylka, and Washington Township Advisory Board candidate, Terrah Nunley.last_img read more

Howard Memorial this weekend at Cottage Grove

first_imgBy Ben DeatherageCOTTAGE GROVE, Ore. – One of the crown jewel events of Xtreme Motor Sports IMCA Modified rac­ing in the Pacific Northwest will take place on Friday, July 10 and Saturday, July 11.The Cottage Grove Speedway Modified Nationals will be run in honor of Mark Howard, who was a very inspirational person to many people in the pit area and a driving mentor to several CGS driv­ers.Many of the best IMCA Modified drivers in the region will be in town for the two nights of action. Saturday’s main event is a fast Shafts All-Star Invitational ballot qualifier, paying $2,600 to win and a minimum of $100 to start.The driver entry fee is $100. Pit passes are the regular $30.00 each.Returning for the third straight year will be the Race Of Champions, which will be held on Friday and feature past champions and 2015 Modified feature winners. Drivers must call CGS General Manager Heather Boyce at 541 729-8666 and pay a $20 entry fee.The 2015 Howard Memorial format will be a point system where the top 10 in the qualifying fea­ture, heat race and qualifying points from Friday are locked into Saturday’s main event.The rest of the drivers will re-qualify through heats on the second night and start behind the locked-in cars.The main event payout is: 1. $2,600; 2. $1,500; 3. $1,000; 4. $600; 5. $500; 6. $400; 7. $300; 8. $250; 9. $200; 10. $150; 11.-back, $100.Admission prices both nights are adults $13, juniors, seniors and military $10, youth ages 6-12 are $5 and five and under are free. Pit gates open at 2 p.m., the front gates open at 4 p.m., qualify­ing is at 5:30 p.m. and racing begins at approximately 6:45 p.m.An entry form and information about format and rules are posted on the  track website, read more

Black Cats accept McClean offer

first_imgSunderland have accepted an undisclosed bid from Wigan for winger James McClean, Press Association Sport understands. Should a deal now be done for the 24-year-old to drop down to the Sky Bet Championship, it will bring to an end a colourful stay on Wearside. McClean was signed by former manager Martin O’Neill from Derry City in 2011 and made an immediate impact when thrown into the Sunderland first team. International honours soon followed, although with the Republic of Ireland rather than his native Northern Ireland. He courted controversy when he opted not to wear a poppy on his shirt during a game against Everton which fell on Remembrance weekend, while he was also involved in a number of controversies on Twitter which led to O’Neill criticising him for using the social networking site. Republic manager Giovanni Trapattoni took a liking to him, though, and selected him for Euro 2012, but new Sunderland boss Paolo Di Canio does not seem to be as big a fan and is willing to allow him to leave. The Italian has made sweeping changes at the club this summer, signing nine new players, and McClean, along with the already-departed Titus Bramble and Matthew Kilgallon, appears to be a victim of the new regime. McClean made 70 appearances for Sunderland scoring 11 goals. center_img Press Associationlast_img read more

Van Persie: I’m happy at United

first_img Press Association There have been rumours the Dutch international is unhappy at Old Trafford. However, Van Persie has claimed he would be happy to sign a new deal with United. His current contract runs until summer 2016. Robin van Persie has moved to end speculation that he wants to leave Manchester United. The striker told United Review, the club’s official programme: “I don’t mind if my performances get dissected and people criticise what I’ve done on the pitch. They can talk about my game 24/7 for all I care… and a lot of those opinions and criticisms may actually be right. So I don’t mind that. “What I need to address are the situations when people are taking it upon themselves to think for me, make assumptions, or interpret things as if they are me. “Last time I checked my head was still attached to my body, so I’m the only one who knows exactly what I’m feeling and that is not what I or the fans have been reading. “The truth is I’m very happy here at this club. I signed for four years and I’d be delighted to stay even longer, beyond the next two years I have left on my contract. “This is how I feel, although it’s not what has been suggested in the media.” Van Persie signed a four-year contract following his £24million move from Arsenal in 2012 but stoked speculation over his future last month when he complained that his team-mates had been getting in his way during United’s 2-0 defeat to Olympiacos in the Champions League. The 30-year-old then cut a frustrated figure when being substituted against West Brom last weekend, having failed to add to his tally of 14 goals in 20 games this season. That impressive strike-rate masks what has nevertheless been a largely troubled campaign marred by niggling injuries and a number of poor results under new manager David Moyes. Moyes’ arrival on the back of Sir Alex Ferguson’s surprise exit at the end of last season has also been held up by some sections of the media as a source of Van Persie’s apparent discontent, but the player insists he is thriving under the new system. “The sessions we have on the training ground are fantastic and I’m learning a lot from them every day,” said Van Persie, whose 26 league goals in an ever-present campaign were the cornerstone of United’s title triumph last season. “I’ve been a professional footballer for 12 years now and there’s no doubt I’m learning new things and progressing with David Moyes. “Over the last few years, I’ve started to look more closely at the way coaches work to learn from them – not just here at the club, but with the international team as well. “I’ve worked with some brilliant coaches and I’ve taken a real interest in all the methods they use and the choices they make. And Moyes’ sessions and the things he says in his team meetings are spot on. “I really enjoy working under him and I’m absolutely convinced things will pick up and we’ll turn it around. He really wants things to work here at Manchester United and I want the same, just like the other players. We’re all working hard to make this work.” Reflecting on the recent speculation over his future, Van Persie added: ” Like I said, talk about my performances or talk about a tackle that was too late. I don’t mind. But it goes too far when people start suggesting, amongst other things, that I have a bad understanding with the manager. That’s not true at all.” last_img read more

Cricket News ICC threatens to slash BCCI’s annual revenue share, 2021 and 2023 events in India under cloud

first_imghighlights New Delhi: The BCCI is set to seek advice from an English law firm after the ICC threatened to deduct a part of the Indian cricket board’s annual revenue share in a continuing tussle on tax exemptions for events held in India. The Shashank Manohar-led International Cricket Council (ICC) wants complete tax exemption for all global events happening in India and is still awaiting waiver for the 2016 World T20 held in the country. According to the latest documentation of the July 6 Committee of Administrators (CoA) meeting here, the ICC wants to recover the tax burden for the 2016 event by slashing the BCCI annual share from the ICC revenue.     The BCCI legal team has informed the CoA that the Board “ensured all efforts to make tax exemptions to ICC. Prior to this event (2016), these events have always received tax exemptions.”     In the recorded minutes uploaded on the BCCI’s website, it is stated that the ICC wants to slash the BCCI’s annual revenue and recover the amount.     “For the 2016 event, tax authorities directed that 10 per cent of the amount payable by ICC’s broadcaster (Star Sports) to ICC under media rights agreement (MRA) should be withheld. The CoA was informed that ICC is now attempting to recover the same amount by deducting the same amounts payable by ICC to BCCI,” it stated.     The CoA has asked the BCCI legal team to contact an “English law firm” since the “agreement between BCCI and the ICC in relation to the hosting of the 2016 World T20 is governed by English law.”     When contacted, a senior BCCI official said that if ICC has its way, the annual revenue of USD 405 million earmarked for the richest cricket board could be slashed by USD 40.5 million (10 per cent).     “The BCCI can’t change the existing government tax laws. We have time and again intimated this to the ICC,” the official told PTI on Thursday. He agreed that unless the current tax law structure is changed or the government of the day agrees on a waiver, there could be problems in hosting of the next two big events in India — the 2021 World T20 and the 2023 50-over World Cup.     “Normally ICC seeks exemption on excise duties for importing TV production equipment. But in this case Star (Sports) which also has the BCCI’s home match rights has a set up in India,” the BCCI official pointed out.     “So why does BCCI need to carry their burden? In any case, we can’t violate government laws and the ICC chairman should be the first one to know that as he has also been BCCI president,” the official said.      Deadlock on Azharuddin’s payments to continue     In other decisions, the BCCI will not clear the payments pending towards former India captain Mohammed Azharuddin after he was banned on match-fixing charges in 2000.     While Azharuddin’s name is not mentioned in the minutes of the July 6 meeting, it states about CoA, having discussed “payments being not made to a certain retired senior cricketer.”     “After some discussions, the CoA decided that no further decision is to be taken in this matter.”     The senior official said that the player in question is Azharuddin.          Orders by Ethics Officer on Conflict cases not to be on the website         The CoA has decided that there is no provision in the new constitution that requires the orders passed by the Ethics Officer to be published on the board’s website and henceforth only a summarised report will be made public.     Also in the minutes of the June 29 meeting, it was decided by the Vinod Rai-led committee that from now on, any complaint filed against BCCI office-bearers or officials will have to be accompanied with a sworn statement from the complainant that he takes “responsibility and ownership of the contents of the complaints.”          Pune and Ranchi swap Tests due to Durga Puja             Pune will now host the second Test between India and South Africa from October 10 to 14 instead of Ranchi which has been handed the third and final Test from October 19-23.     The decision was taken at a CoA meeting on June 29 after the Jharkhand State Cricket Association expressed its inability to host on earlier dates as they are clashing with Durga Puja. For all the Latest Sports News News, Cricket News News, Download News Nation Android and iOS Mobile Apps.center_img Pune to host the second Test between India and South Africa, Ranchi third.ICC has requested the government of the day to agree on a waiver.Annual revenue of the BCCI could be slashed by 10 per cent.last_img read more